Análisis de la edad cognitiva como criterio de segmentación del turista mayor

Mauro R. Miranda Barreto, Ana M. González Fernández

Resumen


La denominada tercera edad constituye uno de los segmentos de mercado más atractivos para la industria turística en las economías desarrolladas del siglo XXI. Este grupo, cada vez más numeroso, cuyos individuos están en plenitud de facultades y con una disponibilidad adquisitiva considerable, no puede ser tratado como un conjunto homogéneo en términos demográficos, psicológicos, ni comportamentales. Realizada una revisión de la literatura sobre los diversos criterios empleados para la segmentación del mercado de mayores, el presente artículo plantea un modelo de medición del constructo “edad cognitiva”, como alternativa a la edad cronológica, variable tradicionalmente utilizada para diferenciar a los mayores, con la finalidad de determinar si existen diferencias significativas entre ambas. El objetivo de esta investigación es, por lo tanto, comprobar si existen divergencias entre las edades cognitivas y cronológicas de las personas mayores, en el caso de que se contraste positivamente esta hipótesis, se justificaría la importancia de utilizar dicha variable en el proceso de segmentación de las personas mayores. Una vez realizada la segmentación se analiza el efecto de la edad cognitiva sobre el comportamiento turístico de los mayores como turistas en los viajes de larga duración. Con la finalidad de alcanzar estos objetivos y una vez recopilada la información, se emplean un conjunto de técnicas estadísticas multivariantes que permitirán contrastar las hipótesis.

The so-called third age is one of the most attractive market segments for the tourism industry in the developed economies of the twenty-first century. This group, growing in numbers, whose members are in full authority and considerable purchasing power availability can not be treated as homogeneous in terms of demographics, psychological, or in their behavior. A review of the literature on the various criteria used for greater market segmentation, this article presents a model for measuring the construct "cognitive age" as an alternative to chronological age, variable traditionally used to differentiate older people in order to determine whether there are significant differences between them. The objective of this research is, therefore, to determine whether there are differences between cognitive and chronological ages of the older people, in the case of a positive contrast to this hypothesis, we justify the importance of using that variable in the segmentation process of older people. Once the segmentation is determined, the cognitive age effect on the behavior of the largest tourism and tourists on long journeys will be analyzed. In order to achieve these objectives, and once obtained the information collected, it will be used a set of multivariate statistical techniques which will test the hypotheses raised.

Palabras clave


Mayores; Segmentación; Edad cognitiva; Comportamiento turístico; Elder people; Segmentation; Cognitive age; Tourism behavior

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18002/pec.v0i2010.766

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