Células troncales y reprogramación celular

Marta Martín-López, María C. Marín, Margarita Marqués

Resumen


A partir de diferentes estadios del desarrollo embrionario murino, es posible establecer in vitro cultivos de células troncales que presentan dos rasgos distintivos:
su capacidad para proliferar indefinidamente, dando lugar a nuevas células troncales (auto-renovación), y su capacidad de diferenciación a todos los tipos celulares que forman el organismo adulto (pluripotencia). Durante décadas,
el tránsito del estado pluripotente al estado de diferenciación terminal fue considerado irreversible; sin embargo, en la actualidad es posible revertir este proceso e inducir la pluripotencia en células somáticas mediante la expresión de
factores de transcripción que regulan la identidad de las células troncales embrionarias. Este proceso, denominado reprogramación celular, da lugar a la generación
de células troncales pluripotentes inducidas (iPSCs), que presentan características moleculares y funcionales similares a las de células troncales embrionarias (ESCs). Por ello, las células reprogramadas son una valiosa herramienta
en Biomedicina, y están siendo empleadas para modelar enfermedades humanas o para la búsqueda de nuevos tratamientos en patologías que no responden
a los enfoques clínicos tradicionales.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18002/ambioc.v0i16.5752

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Copyright (c) 2019 Marta Martín-López, María C. Marín, Margarita Marqués

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