Pirates of the Philippines: A Critical Thinking Exercise
Keywords:Pirates, Philippines, martial arts
Piracy had a formative impact on Filipino history, yet modern practitioners of Filipino Martial Arts generally do not acknowledge its influence. This brief study reconstructs the pirates’ martial practices through comparative historical analysis of their weapons, costume, and organization in order to draw conclusions about their relationship to martial cultures in the Philippines and across the region. Using analogous historical studies on piracy worldwide and examination of traditional arms and armor, this article restores the Iranun pirates to their rightful place as primary contributors to Filipino fighting arts and their influence in shaping Filipino national historiography as a whole.
BREVERTON, T. (2004). The pirate dictionary. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing.
CHE MAN, W. (1990). Muslim separatism: The Moros of southern Philippines and the Malays of southern Thailand. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
CLEMENTS, J. (1997). Renaissance swordsmanship: The illustrated book of rapiers and cut and thrust swords and their use. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.
COLE, M., Connolly, P., SPRING, C., HARDING, A., & WILKINSON, F. (1993). Swords and hilt weapons. New York: Barnes & Noble.
DE QUESADA, A. & WALSH, S. (2007). The Spanish-American War and Philippine insurrection 1898-1902. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
DEMETRIO, F. (1991). Encyclopedia of Philippine folk beliefs and customs. Volume 2: Folk medicine to weaponry. Cagayan de Oro City, R.P.: Xavier University.
EVANGELISTA, N. (1995). The encyclopedia of the sword. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.
GWYN, P. & STANMEYER, J. (2007). Dark passage: The strait of Malacca. National Geographic, 212(4) p. 126-149.
HAMILTON, R. (ed.) (1998). From the rainbow’s varied hue: Textiles from the southern Philippines. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
HARPER, P. & PEPLOW, E. (1991). Philippines handbook. Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing.
KNIGHT, I. & SCOLLINS, R. (1990). Queen Victoria’s enemies (4): Asia, Australasia and the Americas. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
KONSTAM, A. (1999). The history of pirates. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press.
KONSTAM, A. & MCBRID, A. (1998). Pirates 1660-1730. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
KONSTAM, A. & MCBRIDE, A. (2000). Buccaneers 1620-1700. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
LINN, B. (2000). The Philippine War 1899-1902. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
LITTLE, B. (2005). The sea rover’s practice: Pirate tactics and techniques, 1630-1730. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.
MACARAEG, R. (2007 March). Dressed to kill: Toward a theory of fashion in arms and armor. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body, & Culture v11 (1): 41-64.
MCKENNA, T. (1998). Muslim rulers and rebels: Everyday politics and armed separatism in the southern Philippines. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
RACINET, A. (1988). The historical encyclopedia of costume. New York: Checkmark Books.
ROBINSON, H. (1967). Oriental armor. New York: Walker and Co.
SPRUIT, R. (1995). The land of the sultans: An illustrated history of Malaysia. Amsterdam: Pepin Press.
STONE, G. (1934/1999). A glossary of the construction, decoration and use of arms and armor. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
STRUVE, L. (Tran., Ed.) (1993). Voices from the Ming-Qing cataclysm: China in tigers’ jaws. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
WALLACE, A. (1890/2000). The Malay archipelago. 10e. North Clarendon, VT: Periplus Editions.
WEBER, D. (2005). Barbaros: Spaniards and their savages in the age of enlightenment. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
WILEY, M. (1996). Filipino martial culture. Boston: Tuttle Publishing.
WOODARD, C. (2009 Spring). Quelling a pirate revolt. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, 21(3): 8-19.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Ruel A. Macaraeg
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.