Synergetic effects of a low caffeine dose and pre-exercise music on psychophysical performance in female taekwondo athletes




Martial arts, combat sports, taekwondo, performance, ergogenic effect, supplementation, music preference


The ergogenecity of caffeine (CAF) and pre-exercise music have been studied extensively in male and mixed-gender groups, but there is limited information on their synergistic effects in females. This study assessed the effects of combining a low dose of CAF with warm-up music on taekwondo specific performance, perceived exertion (RPE), and psychological aspects in female athletes. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 16 female taekwondo athletes (M ± SD; age: 17.69 ± 0.60 years) performed the taekwondo-specific agility test (TSAT), 10 s frequency speed of kick test (FSKT-10s) and its multiple version (FSKT-mult) under the following conditions: 1) no supplement with music (NS+M); 2) no supplement without music (control); 3) CAF without music (CAF+NM), 4) placebo without music (PL+NM), 5) CAF with music (CAF+M), 6) PL with music (PL+M). After each test, athletes rated their RPE, feeling scale (FS), felt arousal scale (FAS) and physical enjoyment (PACES). CAF+M induced better physical performance than other conditions on the FSKT-10s, FSKT-mult, and more desirable psychophysiological responses including RPE post_TSAT, RPE post_FSKT-10s, PACES post_FSKT-10s, FS, FAS post_warm-up, FAS post_FSKT-10s and FAS post_FSKT-mult (all p < 0.05). Except for PL+M, CAF+M also elicited more desirable responses than other conditions for FAS post_TSAT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CAF+M and CAF+NM conditions enhanced TSAT, PACES post_TSAT, RPE post_FSKT-mult greater than the other conditions (p < 0.05). Preceding warm-up music stimulus with a low dose of CAF may be a more efficient strategy to enhance physical performance and affective valence in female taekwondo athletes compared with using either strategy in isolation.


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Author Biographies

Slaheddine Delleli, Research Unit, Physical Activity, Sport and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport; High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax

Slaheddine Delleli (Tunisia). PhD student and academic researcher at the High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia. E-mail:

Ibrahim Ouergui, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Kef & Research Unit, Sports Science, Health and Movement, University of Jendouba

Ibrahim Ouergui (Tunisia). Assistant professor at the High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Tunisia. E-mail:  

Hamdi Messaoudi, Research Unit, Physical Activity, Sport and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport; High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax

Hamdi Messaoudi (Tunisia). PhD student and academic researcher at the High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia. E-mail:

Craig Alan Bridge, Sports Performance Research Group, Edge Hill University, Wilson Centre

Craig Alan Bridge (United Kingdom). Senior Lecturer at at Edge Hill University, United Kingdom. E-mail:

Luca Paolo Ardigò, Department of Teacher Education, NLA University College

Luca Paolo Ardigò (Norway). Full Professor at the Department of Teacher Education, NLA University College, Oslo, Norway. E-mail:  

Hamdi Chtourou, Research Unit, Physical Activity, Sport and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport; High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax

Hamdi Chtourou (Tunisia). Associate Professor at the High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia. E-mail:


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How to Cite

Delleli, S., Ouergui, I., Messaoudi, H., Bridge, C. A., Ardigò, L. P., & Chtourou, H. (2024). Synergetic effects of a low caffeine dose and pre-exercise music on psychophysical performance in female taekwondo athletes. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 19(1), 55–70.