Effects and symptoms of dehydration in Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes
Keywords:Martial arts, combat sports, BJJ, dehydration, weight loss, sport competition
Agencies:Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—Brazil (CAPES)
Objective. To measure rapid weight loss and urinary indicators of hydration status, as well as to assess the effects and symptoms of dehydration in Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes at different moments. Methods. 17 male BJJ athletes (aged: 24.4 ± 3.5 years; body mass (BM): 76.8 ± 14.6 kg; body fat: 16.6 ± 6.4%), were evaluated between 8 and 9 am at three different moments: Baseline (10 days pre- competition), measurement of BM and stature, collection of urine samples, and food record of the previous 24 hours; pre-competition, measurement of BM, urine samples, and questionnaire to assess rapid weight loss (RWL), and post-competition (24h after), day after competition, with measurement of BM, and urine samples for analysis of specific gravity. Results. There was a tendency to decrease BM to compete (baseline: 76.8 ± 14.6 kg, pre-competition: 75.4 ± 13.4 kg, post-competition: 77.3 ± 13.7 kg; p < 0.07), with 88.2% of athletes using methods that increase dehydration. The majority of athletes were dehydrated at the three time points of the study (94.1%; USG = 1.021 ± 0.005 Usg at baseline, 88.2%; 1.020 ± 0.007 Usg at pre-competition, 88.2%; 1.022 ± 0.008 Usg on the post-competition day), accompanied by symptoms associated with RWL (82.4% increased heart rate, 52.9% headache, 47.1% hot flashes, 41.2% nausea, 41.2% disorientation, and 29.4% dizziness). Conclusions. Rapid pre-competitive weight loss and symptoms associated with dehydration were observed in the BJJ athletes. It is recommended that educational measures are promoted to inhibit RWL among BJJ athletes, requiring the engagement of health professionals and organizations that govern the sport (federations and confederations).
Alderman, B. L., Landers, D. M., Carlson, J., & Scott, J. R. (2004). Factors related to rapid weight loss Practices among international-style wrestlers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(2), 249–252. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000113668.03443.66
Alves, R. C., Bueno, J. C. A., Borges, T. O., Zourdos, M. C., Souza Junior, T. P., & Aoki, M. S. (2018). Physiological function is not fully regained within 24 hours of rapid weight loss in mixed martial artists. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 21(5), 73–83.
American College of Sports Medicine, S. M., LM, B., ER, E., RJ, M., SJ, M., NS., S., … Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597
Andrade, A., Flores, M. A., Andreato, L. V., & Coimbra, D. R. (2019). Physical and training characteristics of mixed martial arts athletes: Systematic Review. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 41(1), 51–63. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000410
Andrade, A., Silva, R. B., Flores Junior, M. A., Rosa, C. B., & Dominski, F. H. (2019). Changes in mood states of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes during training and competition. Sport Sciences for Health, 15(2), 469–475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-019-00562-0
Andreato, L. V., Esteves, J. V. D. C., Julio, U. F., Panissa, V. L. G., Hardt, F., Moraes, S. M. F. de, & Franchini, E. (2017). Physical performance, time-motion, technical-tactical analyses, and perceptual responses in Brazilian jiu-jitsu matches of varied duration. Kinesiology, 49(1), 30–40. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.49.1.11
Andreato, L. V., Follmer, B., Celidonio, C. L., & Honorato, A. da S. (2016). Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu combat among different categories: Time-motion and physiology. A Systematic Review. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 38(6), 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000256
Andreato, L. V., Franchini, E., de Moraes, S. M., Pastório, J. J., Da Silva, D. F., Esteves, J. V. D. ., … Machado, F. A. (2013). Physiological and Technical-tactical analysis in Brazilian jiu-jitsu competition. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(2), 137–143. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.34496
Armstrong, L. E., Herrera Soto, J. A., Hacker, F. T., Casa, D. J., Kavouras, S. A., & Maresh, C. M. (1998). Urinary indices during dehydration, exercise, and rehydration. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8(4), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.8.4.345
Artioli, G. G., Franchini, E., & Lancha Junior, A. H. (2006). Perda de peso em esportes de combate de domínio: Revisão e recomendações aplicadas. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano, 8(2), 92–101.
Artioli, G. G., Franchini, E., Nicastro, H., Sterkowicz, S., Solis, M. Y., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-7-15
Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Franchini, E., Scagliusi, F. B., Takesian, M., Fuchs, M., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rapid weight loss among Judo competitors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(3), 436–442. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ba8055
Artioli, G. G., Saunders, B., Iglesias, R. T., & Franchini, E. (2016). It is time to ban rapid weight loss from combat sports. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 1579–1584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0541-x
Artioli, G. G., Scagliusi, F. B., Kashiwagura, D. B., Franchini, E., Gualano, B., & Lancha Júnior, A. H. (2010). Development, validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to evaluate rapid weight loss patterns in judo players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(1), e177–e187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00940.x
Brito, C. J., Roas, A. F. C. M., Brito, I. S. S., Marins, J. C. B., Córdova, C., & Franchini, E. (2012). Methods of body-mass reduction by combat sport athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(2), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.22.2.89
Broglio, S. P., Cantu, R. C., Gioia, G. A., Guskiewicz, K. M., Kutcher, J., Palm, M., & McLeod, T. C. V. (2014). National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Management of sport concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(2), 245–265. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-49.1.07
Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. K., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V, Rich, B. S. ., … Stone, J. A. (2000). National Athletic Trainers’ association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(2), 212–224.
CDC. (1998). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hyperthermia and dehydration-related deaths associated with intentional rapid weight loss in three collegiate wrestlers--North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., 47(6), 105–108.
Ceylan, B., & Balci, S. S. (2021). Dehydration and rapid weight gain between weigh-in and competition in judo athletes: The differences between women and men. Research in Sports Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1989435
Ceylan, B., Baydil, B., & Aydos, L. (2021). Weigh-in time affects hydration status and acute weight gain in combat sports: A comparison of judo and wrestling. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 16(2), 80. https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v16i2.7020
Ceylan, B., Kons, R. L., Detanico, D., & Šimenko, J. (2022). Acute dehydration impairs performance and physiological responses in highly trained judo athletes. Biology, 11(6), 872. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060872
Ceylan, B., Roland Barley, O., & Balci, S. S. (2022). Changes in body mass and hydration status in judo athletes before and after a top-level competition: a descriptive case study. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2022.2026200
Cheuvront, S. N., Carter, R., Montain, S. J., Stephenson, L. A., & Sawka, M. N. (2004). Influence of hydration and airflow on thermoregulatory control in the heat. Journal of Thermal Biology, 29(7–8), 471–477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2004.08.016
Cheuvront, S. N., & Sawka, M. N. (2005). Sports Science Exchange 97 Hydration Assessment of Athletes. Gatorade SSI, 18(2), 1–12.
Choma, C. W., Sforzo, G. A., & Keller, B. A. (1998). Impact of rapid weight loss on cognitive function in collegiate wrestlers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(5), 746–749. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199805000-00016
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed; U. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, Ed.).
Costill, D., & Sparks, K. (1973). Rapid fluid replacement following thermal dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 34(3), 299–303. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1999
Coswig, V. S., Fukuda, D. H., & Del Vecchio, F. B. (2015). Rapid weight loss elicits harmful biochemical and hormonal responses in mixed martial arts athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(5), 480–486. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0267
Coswig, V. S., Gentil, P., Bueno, J. C. A., Follmer, B., Marques, V. A., & Del Vecchio, F. B. (2018). Physical fitness predicts technical-tactical and time-motion profile in simulated Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu matches. PeerJ, 6(5), e4851. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4851
Del Vecchio, F. B., Gondim, D. F., & Arruda, A. C. P. (2016). Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: Differences considering practice time and combat style. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8), 2341–2347. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001324
Detanico, D., Dellagrana, R. A., Athayde, M. S. da S., Kons, R. L., & Góes, A. (2017). Effect of a Brazilian jiu-jitsu-simulated tournament on strength parameters and perceptual responses. Sports Biomechanics, 3141(July), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2016.1206143
Fernández-Elías, V. E., Martinez-Abellán, A., López-Gullón, J. M., Morán-Navarro, R., Pallarés, J. G., De La Cruz-Sánchez, E., & Mora-Rodriguez, R. (2014). Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weight cutting and official weigh-in for olympic combat sports. PLoS ONE, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095336
Ferreira, F. G., Alves, K., Costa, N. M. B., Santana, Â. M. C., & Marins, J. C. B. (2010). Efeito do nível de condicionamento físico e da hidratação oral sobre a homeostase hídrica em exercício aeróbico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 16(3), 166–170.
Franchini, E., Brito, C. J., & Artioli, G. G. (2012). Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 52. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-9-52
Gasparotto, S., Marcelo, E., Junior, L., Alves, R. C., Junior, S., Carlos, J., … Junior, D. S. (2015). Handgrip strength in Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes: comparative study between graduations. Cinergis, 16(3), 160–163.
Guder, F. (2020). Monitoring change of urine specific gravity levels of the wrestlers in an official wrestling tournament. Progress in Nutrition, 22(1), 189–193. https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v22i1-S.9824
IBJJF. (2021). Rule Book. International Brazilian jiu-jitsu federation (IBJJF). Retrieved from International Brazilian jiu-jitsu federation website: http://www.ibjjf.com/rules/
Kiningham, R. B., & Gorenflo, D. W. (2001). Weight loss methods of high school wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), 810–813. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200105000-00021
Kons, R. L., Athayde, M. S. D. S., Follmer, B., & Detanico, D. (2017). Methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss in judo athletes over pre-competition periods. Human Movement, 18(2), 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2017-0014
Lohman, T. J., Roache, A. F., & Martorell, R. (1992). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 24(8), 952.
Mazzoccante, R. P., de Sousa, I. C., Mendes, L. C. V., Mendes, M. C. V., & Asano, R. Y. (2016). Comparação da prevalência de métodos de perda de peso pré‐competição em judocas de diferentes categorias. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Do Esporte, 38(3), 297–302.
Moshfegh, A. J., Rhodes, D. G., Baer, D. J., Murayi, T., Clemens, J. C., Rumpler, W. V., Paul, D. R., Sebastian, R. S., Kuczynski, K. J., Ingwersen, L. A., Staples, R. C., & Cleveland, L. E. (2008). The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(2), 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.2.324
Oppliger, R. A., Steen, S. A. N. N., & Scott, J. R. (2003). Weight loss practices of college wrestlers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13(1), 29–46. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.13.1.29
Pallarés, J. G., Martínez-Abellán, A., López-Gullón, J. M., Morán-Navarro, R., De la Cruz-Sánchez, E., & Mora-Rodríguez, R. (2016). Muscle contraction velocity, strength and power output changes following different degrees of hypohydration in competitive olympic combat sports. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0121-3
Pettersson, S., & Berg, C. M. (2014). Hydration status in elite wrestlers, judokas, boxers, and taekwondo athletes on competition day. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24(3), 267–275. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0100
Reale, R., Slater, G., & Burke, L. M. (2017). Acute-weight-loss strategies for combat sports and applications to Olympic success. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(2), 142–151. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211
Reljic, D., Hässler, E., Jost, J., & Friedmann-Bette, B. (2013). Rapid weight loss and the body fluid balance and hemoglobin mass of elite amateur boxers. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(1), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.05
Rhea, M. R. (2004). Determining the magnitude of treatment effects in strength training research through the use of the effect size. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(4), 918–920. https://doi.org/10.1519/14403.1
Sawka, M., & Coyle EF. (1999). Influence of body water and blood volume on thermoregulation and exercise performance in the heat. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 27, 167–218.
Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597
Sommerfield, L. M., McAnulty, S. R., McBride, J. M., Zwetsloot, J. J., Austin, M. D., Mehlhorn, J. D., … Utter, A. C. (2016). Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8), 2219–2225. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001313
Steen, S., & Brownll, K. (1990). Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 22(6), 762. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199012000-00005
Tipton, C. M., & Tcheng, T. K. (1970). Iowa wrestling study. Weight loss in high school students. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 214(16), 1269–1274. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.214.7.1269
Todorović, N., Ranisavljev, M., Tapavički, B., Zubnar, A., Kuzmanović, J., Štajer, V., … Drid, P. (2021). Principles of rapid weight loss in female sambo athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(21). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111356
Viveiros, L., Moreira, A., Zourdos, M. C., Aoki, M. S., & Capitani, C. D. (2015). Pattern of weight loss of young female and male wrestlers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(11), 3149–3155. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000968
White, T., & Kirk, C. (2021). Pre-competition body mass loss characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors in the United Kingdom. Nutrition and Health, 27(4), 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0260106020983800
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 João Carlos Alves Bueno, Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Alexandro Andrade,Miguel Alencar Flores Junior, Ragami Chaves Alves, André de Camargo Smolarek, Tácito Pessoa de Souza Junior, Fabricio Boscolo Del Vecchio
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.